Bone references

Ajie, H., I.R. Kaplan, P.J. Slota, Jr., and R.E. Taylor, 1990. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone osteocalcin. In Yiou, F., and G.M. Raisbeck (eds), Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, B52(3,4):433-437.

Arnold, J.R., and W.F. Libby, 1951. Radiocarbon dates. Science, 113:111-120.

Arslanov, Kh.A., and Yu. S. Svezhentsev, 1993. An improved method for radiocarbon dating fossil bones. Radiocarbon, 35(3):387-391.

Berger, R., and W.F. Libby 1966. UCLA radiocarbon dates V. Radiocarbon, 8:467-497.

Berger, R., Horney, A.G., and Libby, W.F., 1964. Radiocarbon dating of bone and shell from their organic componenets. Science, 144:999-1001.

Brown, T.A., D.E. Nelson, J.S. Vogel, and J.R. Southon, 1988. Improved collagen extraction method by modified Longin method. Radiocarbon, 30(2):171-177.

DeNiro, M.J., and S. Epstein, 1981. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 45:341-351.

DeNiro, M.J., and S. Weiner, 1988a. Chemical, enzymatic and spectroscopic characterizaton of "collagen" and other organic fractions from prehistoric bones. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52:2197-2206.

DeNiro, M.J., and S. Weiner, 1988b. Use of collagenase to purify collagen from prehistoric bones for stable isotopic analysis. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52:2425-2431.

DeVries, H.I., and G.W. Barendesen, 1954. Measurements of age by the carbon-14 technique. Nature, 174:1138-1141.

El-Daoushy, M.F.A.F., I.U. Olsson, and F.H. Oro, 1978. The EDTA and HCl methods of pretreating bones. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar, 100:213-219.

Garlick, J.D., 1969. Buried bone. In Brothwell, D., and E. Higgs (eds), Science in Archaeology: A survey of progress and research, pp503-512. Great Britian: Thames and Hudson.

Gillespie, R., 1989. Fundamentals of bone degradation chemistry: Collagen is not "the way". In Long, A., and R.S. Kra (eds), Proceedings of the 13th International 14C Conference. Radiocarbon, 31(3):239-46.

Gillespie, R., R.E.M. Hedges, and J.O. Wand, 1984. Radiocarbon dating of bone by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Archaeological Science, 11:165-170.

Gurfinkel, D.M., 1987. Comparative study of the radiocarbon dating of different bone collagen preparations. Radiocarbon, 29(1):45-52.

Hare, P.E., 1980. Organic geochemistry of bone and its relation to the survival of bone in the natural environment. In Behrensmeye, A.K., and A.P. Hill (eds), Fossils in the Making: Vertebrate Taphonomy and Paleoecology, pp208-219. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Hare, P.E., and M.L.F. Estep, 1983. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids in modern and fossil collagens. Carnegie, Inst. Wash. Yearb. 82:410-414.

Haas, H. and J.J. Banewics, 1980. Radiocarbon dating of bone apatite using Thermal release of CO2. In Stuiver, M., and R.S. Kra (eds), Proceedings of the 10th International 14C conference. Radiocarbon,22(2):537-544.

Hassan, A.A., 1976. Geochemical and mineralogical studies on bone apatite and their implications for radiocarbon dating. PhD dissertation. Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.

Hassan, A.A., and P.E. Hare, 1978. Amino acid analysis in radiocarbon dating of bone collagen. In Carter G.G. (ed), Archaeological Chemistry II:109-116.

Hauschka, P.V., 1980. Osteocalcin: A specific protein of bone with potential for fossil dating. In Hare, P.E., T.C. Hoering, and K. King (eds), Biogeochemistry of Amino Acids, pp75-82. New York, Wiley Interscience.

Haynes, C.V., 1967. Bone organic matter and radiocarbon dating. In Radiocarbon Dating and Methods of Low Level Counting, pp163-167. Vienna, IAEA.

Haynes, C.V., 1968. Radiocarbon: Analysis of inorganic carbon of fossil bone and enamel. Science, 161:687-688.

Hedges, R.E.M, and G.J. van Klinken, 1992. A review of current approaches in the pretreatment of bone for radiocarbon dating by AMS. In Long, A., and R.S. Kra (eds), Proceedings of the 14th International 14C Conference. Radiocarbon, 34(3):279-291.

Hedges, R.E.M., J. Lee-THorp, and N. Tuross, 1994. Radiocarbon dating of tooth enamel. In the 15th International Radiocarbon Conference, Book of Abstracts. Glasgow.

Henderson, J. 1987. Factors determining the state of preservation of human remains. In Boddington, A., A.N. Garland, and R.C. Janaway (eds), Death, Decay, and Reconstruction, pp43-54. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ho, T.Y., L. G. Marcus, and R. Berger, 1969. Radiocarbon dating of petroleum-impregnated bone from tar pits at Rancho La Brea, California. Science, 164:1051-1052.

Law, I.A., and R.E.M. Hedges, 1989. A semi-automated bone pretreatment system and the pretreatment of older and contaminated samples. In Stuiver, M. and R.S. Kra (eds), Proceedings of the 13th International 14C Conference. Radiocarbon, 31(3):247-253.

Law, I.A., R.A. Housley, N. Hammond, and R.E.M. Hedges, 1991. Cuello: Resolving the Chronology Through Direct Dating of Conserved and Low-Collagen Bone by AMS. Radiocarbon, 33(3):303-315.

Lee-Thorp, J.A., J.C. Sealy, and N.J. van der Merwe, 1989. Stable carbon isotope ratio differences between bone collagen and bone apatite, and their relationship to diet. Journal of Archaeological Science,16:585-599.

Libby, W.F., 1952. Radiocarbon Dating. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Long, A., A.T. Wilson, R.D. Ernst, B.H. Gore, and P.E. Hare, 1989. AMS radiocarbon dating of bones at Arizona. In Stuiver, M. and R.S. Kra (eds), Proceedings of the 13th International 14C Conference. Radiocarbon, 31(3):231-38.

Longin, R., 1971. New method of collagen extraction for radiocarbon dating. Nature, 230:241-242.

Masters, P.M., 1987. Preferential preservation of noncolagenous protein during bone diagenesis: Implications for chonometric and stable isotopic isotopic measurements. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 51:3209-3214.

May, I., 1955. Isolation of organic carbon from bones for 14C dating. Science, 121:508-509.

Morrison, R.I., 1969. Soil Lipids. In Eglinton G., and M.T.J. Murphy (eds), Organic Geochemistry: Methods and Results. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin:558-575.

Munnich, K.O., 1957. Heidelberg natural radiocarbon measurements I. Science, 126, 194-199.

Muller, R.A., 1977. Radioisotope dating with a cyclotron. Science , 196:489-494.

Olson, E.A. (ms), 1963. The problem of sample contamination in radiocarbon dating. Unpublished Phd dissertation, Columbia University, New York.

Olsson, I.U., M.F.A.F. El-Daoushy, A.I. Abd-El-Mageed, and M. Klasson, 1974. A comparison of different methods of pretreament of bones. Geologiska Foreningens i Stockholm Forhandlingar, 96:171-181.

Pritchard, J.J, 1974. Bones. London: Oxford University Press.

Protsch, R., 1975. The absolute dating of upper Pleistocene subsaharan fossil hominids and their place in human evolution. Journal of Human Evolution, 4:297-322.

Protsch, R., 1991. Dating of bones in archaeology and anthropology. In Golksu, H.U, M. Oberhofer, and D. Regulla (eds), Scientific Dating Method. Advanced Science and technology Vol 1: Netherlands:271-30. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Redvers-Newton, N.A., and G.E. Coote, 1994. Bone pretreatments for radiocarbon dating: a study incorporating AMS dating and ion beam analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods, B29:270-273.

Sinex, F.B., and B. Faris, 1959. Isolation of gelatin from ancient bones. Science, 129:969.

Smith, E.L., R.L. Hill, I.R. Lehman, R.J. Lefkowitz, P. Handler, and A. White, 1983. Principles of Biochemistry: Mammalian Biochemistry. Seventh edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Sobel, H., and R. Berger, 1994. AMS studies on selected proteins of bone in archaeology. In the 15th International Radiocarbon Conference, Book of Abstracts. Glasgow.

Stafford, T.W.Jr., R.C. Duhamel, C.V.Jr.Haynes, and K. Brendel,1982. Isolation of proline and hydroxyproline from fossil bone. Life Science, 31:931-938.

Stafford, T.W. Jr., A.J. Jull, K. Brendel, R.C. Duhamel, and D. Donahue, 1987. Study of bone radocarbon dating accuracy at the University of Arizona NSF accelerator facility for radioisotope analysis. Radiocarbon, 29(1):24-44.

Stafford, T.W. Jr., K. Brendel, and R.C. Duhamel, 1988. Radiocarbon 13C and 15N analysis of fossil bone: Removal of humates with XAD-2 resin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52:2257-2267.

Stafford, T.W. Jr., K. Brendel, and R.C. Duhamel, 1991. Accelerator radiocarbon dating at the molecular level. Journal of Archaeological Sciences, 18:35-72.

Stevenson, F.J., and J.H.A. Butler, 1969. Chemistry of Humic acids and related Pigments. In Eglinton, G., and M.T.J. Murphy (eds), Organic Geochemistry: Methods and Results, pp534-556. Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag Berlin.

Tamers, M.A., and Pearson F.J. Jr., 1965. Validity of radiocarbon dates on bone. Nature, 208:1053-1055.

Taylor, R. E., 1982. Problems in the Radiocarbon dating of bone. In L.A. Currie (ed), Nuclear and Chemical Dating Techniques: Interpreting the Environmental Record,pp453-473. Washington DC, American Chemical Society.

Taylor, R.E., 1992. Radiocarbon dating of bone: To collagen and beyond. In Taylor, R.E., A. Long, R.S. Kra (eds) Radiocarbon after four decades: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, pp375-402. New York, Springer-Verlag.

Tuross, N., M.L. Fogel, and P.E. Hare, 1988. Variablility in the preservation of the isotopic composition of collagen from fossil bone. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52:929-935.

van Klinken, G.J., 1994. the degree of cross linking in ancient collagens. In the 15th International Radiocarbon Conference, Book of Abstracts. Glasgow.

van Klinken, G.J., and R.E.M. Hedges, 1992. Experiments on 14C dating of contaminated bone using peptides resulting from enzymatic cleavage of collagen. Radiocarbon, 34(3):292-295.

van Klinken, G.J., and W.G. Mook, 1990. Preparative high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of individual amino acids derived from fossil bone collagen. Radiocarbon, 32(2):155-164.

Vogel, J.C., and H.T. Waterbolk, 1963. Groningen radiocarbon dates IV. Radiocarbon, 5:163-202.

Wand, J.O. (ms), 1981. Microsample preparation for radiocarbon dating. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Oxford University.

Waterlow, J.C., P.J. Garlick , and D.J. Millward, 1978. Protein Turnover in Mammalian Tissues and in the Whole Body. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

Weiner, S. and O. Bar-Yosef, 1990. States of preservation of bones from prehistoric sites in the Near East: A survey. Journal of Archaeological Science, 17:187-196.

Woodhead-Galloway, J., 1980. Collagen: The Anatomy of a Protein. London: E. Arnold.

Wyckoff, R.W., 1972. The Biochemistry of Animal Fossils. Bristol: Scientechnica.